Beck, 94— The Journey of a Holocaust Historian.
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Volkhard Knigge and Norbert Frei. Beck, 21— Kroh, Jens Transnationale Erinnerung. Der Holocaust im Fokus geschichtspolitischer Initiativen [Transnational memory. The Holocaust in the focus of historical policy initiatives]. Frankfurt am Main: Campus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Totalitarian experience and European memory].
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Diktaturerfahrungen und Demokratieentwicklung [Work on European memory. Dictatorship and democracy development], ed. Studies on the Holocaust , vol. The article analyses selected Holocaust memorials in several Central and East European countries. Using the approaches of historical and visual sociology, it identifies processes and agents that shaped the present-day memorials during communism and after.
These were: commemoration by Jews; memorialization, marginalization, suppression and the obliteration of Jewish victimhood by the communist authorities; making minor or substantial changes to the existing monuments after communism and developing them; and creating new Holocaust memorials both public and private, and by domestic and foreign agents. The article concludes that the Holocaust memorials in the region are primarily a result of legacies of communist times. They were also shaped by transnational influences.
By and large they are national developments. While mostly official and public, some are unofficial and private. Therefore, the study of memorials best reveals the characteristics and development of collective memory and public remembrance of a given event by various social groups. This article will account for the main findings of a study of memorials to the Holocaust, that is, the persecution and murder of Jews by Nazi Germany, its allies and collaborators during the Second World War.
The study concerned major Holocaust memorials in several countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The author of this article carried out the study between and , including extensive fieldwork — an on-site exploration and a written and photographic documentation of the selected Holocaust memorials, museums, and sites in selected countries of Central and Eastern Europe — in — The main objective of the study was to account for the processes and agents that shaped the present-day Holocaust memorials in the region.
This article will discuss some of the objects covered by the study that best illustrate the patterns discovered. They belong to or are the most important Holocaust memorials in their countries. The region, countries and objects discussed in this article were chosen for three reasons.
First, the Holocaust has had a special historical significance for Central and Eastern Europe. It is there that the murder of Jews largely took place. Some states of the region and some people engaged in the Holocaust as accomplices or perpetrators.
As a result of the Holocaust, Central and East European countries lost nearly all their Jewish populations. Coping with the Holocaust has been a major challenge for the people and states in the region. Secondly, the collective memory and commemoration of the Holocaust have been increasingly important for the countries and people in the region as they have for other countries and people, and, indeed, all humanity. These processes were accounted for in the social sciences theories capturing various aspects of transnational Holocaust memory and in the works of historians.
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Alexander showed that the Holocaust has come to be recognized globally as the epitome of the universal evil. Thus Holocaust memory has become universalized and globalized. Daniel Levy and Nathan Sznaider indicated that following the development of national memories of the Holocaust in such countries as West Germany, Israel and the USA from the s to the s, Holocaust memory also became cosmopolitan in the s and s.
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The cosmopolitanization of Holocaust memory involved its universalization, de-territorialization, de-contextualization and mediatization. Kucia also analysed the impact of these processes on Central and East European countries. Steinlauf ; Sniegon discussed the development of Holocaust memory in the counties of the region, particularly on the demise of communism. The third reason for studying Holocaust memorials in Central and Eastern Europe was that this is an under-researched topic.
There were publications covering the most important Holocaust memorials, particularly ones in the region e. Holocaust memorials were also addressed in the broader studies of Holocaust memory or Holocaust sites, particularly those in Central and Eastern Europe e. Several institutions have catalogued Holocaust memorials online e.