IV, vv. Estos relatos extraordinarios, que el autor The desperate desire to escape from the tragic reality of the present and to recover a Golden Age recurs in Horace's famous Sixteenth Epode: written in the spring of 38 B. Escapism in the face of civil war may have replaced the egalitarian aspirations of the Hellenistic utopias, which Diodorus was including in his work as Vergil and Horace were writing; but we are evidently in the same spiritual and cultural milieu Sokotra, o incluso Madagascar cf.
En efecto, dedos Poll. Preparan carne y todas las otras cosas asadas y hervidas en agua pero ignoran completamente todas las otras salsas preparadas con ingenio por los cocineros y la variedad de los condimentos. HN, VI. Leipzig, Sumtibus et Typis C. Tauchnitii, Diodori bibliotheca historica. Stuttgart: Teubner, Granada: Universidad de Granada, , p.
Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro, , p. Paris : E.
De Boccard, In: The American Journal of Philology, v. In: The Journal of Roman Studies, v.
Londres: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, , p. Madrid, Taurus, , p. In: Journal of African History, v. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , p.soilstones.com/wp-content/2020-01-04/2733.php
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Madrid: CSIC, , pp. Madrid: Alianza, Sometimes the integrated destination is a digression and some others is part of the dramatic structure. The digression appears in films whose generic conditions stimulate this digression. However, the tourist space, as such and materialised in the tourist view, also plays an essential role in the dramatic structure of many of the analysed films.
Selection of a representative sample of the body of films produced between and Identification of a typology of tourist space in the sample of films and of the intangible values associated with it. After the first distinction between view and space, the objective was to differentiate the tourist locations depending on their relation with other spaces, the characters, the events that take place in them and their characterisation. Analysis of the tourist space in the narrative and the dramatic structure of films. We firstly addressed the tourist space as a digression, identifying their different types: unjustified descriptive sequences, scenes that contain actions and events conventionally supressed in the film story but allow the display of the views and documentary-style scenes or shots, or scenes that contain musical themes.
However, some of these digressions in the narration may be justified by the generic conventions of the films, notably by the comedy of manners and musical comedy, which are the genres to which an important part of the sampled films belong. Results 3. In the films that we have analysed, the tourist space is the integrated product. To begin with, we must differentiate the tourist view from the tourist space. Thus, we could define the tourist view as the layout of the tourist landscape in order to the sense of sight.
In the films that we have analysed, the tourist sight is integrated into the space, but this is not reduced to the views. We have to take into consideration that part of the events happen indoors -hotels, restaurants, and apartments, for example- and that those that occur outdoors do not necessarily contain views. This means that actions and events take place in a privileged location from the tourist point of view -viewpoints, for example-, and that the shot composition and the way in which they are captured by the camera highlight the background that contains them.
The characters make these comments and are the stars of the movies in many cases are played by stars rather than actors -even very well-known transmedia stars as well-known as the Dynamic Duo, Marisol and Manolo Escobar, known for their pop and folkloric music, with everything that this entails. Undoubtedly, the opinions and preferences these stars share both in the fictional movie world and the other media worlds they star in certainly have huge persuasive power.
This dimension is certainly important but exceeds the interests of this study, which is focused on the treatment of space in tourist films. Figure 2. En un lugar de La Manga. In most of the analysed films the referential space dominates [fig. It is common for films to use more than one resource to mention the name of the location in which the events happen. The referential space contributes to the generation of a realistic effect, but also allows the viewer to identify it clearly.
Figure 3. Un beso en el puerto. Tourist space is often associated with intangible values. In the tourism comedy of the Late Francoism the contrast is no longer made in comparison to foreign spaces -the exception is Lo verde empieza en los Pirineos -, but in comparison to the daily workspace and the time dedicated to the summer. The relation between the different spaces is much more complex. However, the tourist destination, without ceasing to be associated with these intangible characteristics, can also be a working space.
In some comedy of manners of the developmentalism and some melodramas the tourist destination is the workplace of the unlucky risk-takers, who in many cases survive at the expense of tourists, at least until the story changes -and it always does in this type of movies- their social status. In the late Francoism these labour outcasts are transformed into middle-class professionals, occupying jobs in professions as innovative at the time as public relations.
This happens in Manolo la nuit and El abominable hombre de la Costa del Sol. Here the tourist space is the workplace and the site for sexual adventures in previous years, this type of space gave rise to non-physical relationships. Both films divide those who enjoy the holidays and those workers who, in precarious conditions, make a living from tourists and vacationers. The contrast is stark. Something similar occurs in Los felices sesenta and Playa de Formentor , but in this case the abundant tourist views of Costa Brava and Mallorca reflect the bourgeois banality, and the tourist space is presented as a last bastion of exclusivity -in the first film against its possible and foreseeable massification.
translation tpod spanish
In good part of the films the tourist scene and its associated intangible values determine the events and characters, their desires and motivations. This is most noticeable when the space is accompanied by cultural stereotypes that affect alleged identity features that are very attractive for the foreign imagination.
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Petersen ,andto the respect for the pastoral tradition in En un lugar de la Manga Alicia. The situation differs in many comedies of the late Francoism. While the space continues to be decisive, here the character arc, which is more important for male characters, goes from the need to escape from the traditional family to its acceptance after the defeat: the tourist destination is presented as the place to escape to avoid family restrictions - Manolo, la nuit and Lo verde empieza en los Pirineos - or the place to escape from — Cuarenta grados a la sombra and Verano Tourist space can be characterised as an idyllic paradise - Congreso en Sevilla, Todo es posible en Granada, Luna de verano, Amor bajo cero and Escala en Tenerife , among many others- or as an aggressive place.
In fact, in the analysed films there is an evolution from the former to the latter, even in the comedies of the s. In movies like Cuarenta grados a la sombra and Verano 70 the tourist space, especially on the coast, is presented as a distressing and crowded place [fig. The reaction of many male characters in this situation -or rather using this situation as justification- is to flee towards non-tourist places to work.
Figure 4: Verano In the latter, the paradisiacal Mediterranean island of Almanzora -which is not a referential space-, populated by innocent children, contrasts with their bloody actions. However, the tourist space conditions the story to a lesser degree than in the rest of the analysed movies.
In fact, this happens in part in El pueblo de los malditos Wolf Rilla, , set in an idyllic village in the English countryside. But this does not occur in Una vela para el diablo. The film addresses one of the recurring themes in late Francoist cinema: the clash between tradition and modernity Huerta, The emergence of modern customs with non-referential tourism in the space characteristic of the tradition triggers the murdering of tourists by two sisters who run a guesthouse.
It can be argued that the guesthouse constitutes the last redoubt of tradition against modernity, and its defence at all costs leads to the heinous crime. Some comedies also suggest this conflict and resolve it more politely: in En un lugar de la Manga the opposition between tradition and modernity occurs in the same space, reaching a satisfactory solution for the defenders of one and the other; in El turismo es un gran invento the aim of its protagonists is to lead the people, characterised by tradition, towards the modernity of tourism.
Tourist space can also become a fantastic space. This special feature exerts a great influence on tourist comedies. In other movies, however, fantasy has a clear link with tourism. Arcadian tourist space. Linked to the past, tradition and folklore.
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It can be associated to both hedonism and social backwardness.