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In addition, companies are less burdened by fixed costs and can thus be said to be leaner and more competitive. Women, in particular, tend to work part-time. This was significantly higher than in the French survey, where the part-time percentage for mothers was reported to be much lower This high incidence of part-time work among women has been found to incur a significant pay and opportunities gap in Britain.

In the UK, this is This is significantly higher than the OECD average of Although earnings of female part-timers improved relative to male counterparts immediately after the introduction of these acts in the s, the pay gap started to widen again for part-timers in the s and s. Moreover, the main problem with part-time work is that it is overwhelmingly concentrated in low paid sectors fuelling labour market segmentation.

The highest paying and highest ranking managerial, professional and associate professional occupations are predominately occupied by full-time workers. The low rated and low paid occupations in service, such as sales and other elementary positions, are occupied by more women than men and by more part-timers. After analysing the incidence of part-time across countries, the OECD has concluded that women are more likely to work part-time in countries with high childcare costs.

Stier and Lewin-Epstein 18 underline that greater institutional support for maternal employment enables mothers to limit breaks from the labour market or having to take part-time low prospect jobs.

Disability Discrimination Act

Esping-Anderson noted that only welfare policies that support daycare lead to high employment for women with young children. In Britain, parenthood is seen as an individual and private choice. The state is therefore not considered to be responsible for providing the necessary facilities at an affordable price to enable women to have easier access to paid work.

If women are unable to purchase care on the market, they may withdraw from the labour market altogether. With the rise of neo-liberalism in Britain, the role of the market and voluntary sector in the provision of childcare has become central. This has thus reinforced the male-breadwinner society. This was very difficult in Britain, where workers are constrained by less favourable childcare conditions and less job mobility, which seems to suggest that part-time work may be more of a constraint than a choice.

While local authority childcare places have decreased, Britain has witnessed a spectacular increase in the number of private nurseries and child minders.

Disability Discrimination Act

Despite the introduction of a Child Care Allowance for low income working parents and a nursery voucher scheme in under John Major and the introduction of the expansion of early childhood and childcare services under the National Childcare Strategy leading to new paternity and parental leave and flexible working arrangements , Britain still lacks childcare state support. Childcare in Britain typically costs a quarter of female earnings and few employers provide nurseries on site.

Inequalities in Britain persist therefore between mothers in low-paid jobs and those with a better education on higher incomes who can afford to pay for private care. Social class is influential in Britain because of the highly deregulated labour market which means that there is a wider spread of earnings and a residual welfare state.

The coalition government in office between and cut child tax credits but also reduced local government budgets and these have hit women hard. Childcare provision in low income neighbourhoods has declined as a result of fiscal consolidation. The introduction of universal credit to rationalise benefits has also reduced work incentives for the second income earner — mostly women. However, the British survey found that this was not the case. Considering the aforementioned higher pay and prospect issues, it might be expected that significant issues regarding men and women at work might be raised.

However, the British survey did not bring out any significant issues regarding men and women at work. However, the French reported significant gender inequality issues. However, as we have mentioned previously, statistics do not seem to suggest that inequality is stronger on the French labour market than the British one. The opposite is true.


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But can we also conclude that, in the neo-liberal British labour market, profit comes before equality? The prevailing neo-liberal ideology gives primacy to the individual above state intervention and this seems to have pervaded British culture. British people seem to accept more readily the trade-off between fewer hours and lower pay and family time: individual effort and reduced working hours automatically equates with low pay and prospect in this model, and it is considered to be acceptable. This indeed might explain why there is very little discrimination reported in the British survey. However, other countries where neo-liberalism is less pronounced do not buy into this theory, as the French survey suggests.

Critics also argue that the increase in wages in the top decile, and particularly the top 1 per cent, which is particularly significant in neo-liberal economies, such as the UK and the US, is not in line with performance or qualifications. It is more in terms of the power that managers have to negotiate their own remuneration. Crompton 22 underlines that cultural norms may actually outweigh institutions.

British conservative tradition means that it is still overwhelmingly women that undertake domestic chores: on average 2 hours 40 minutes a day for women and 1 hour 25 minutes per day for men. Women may adjust employment and childcare behavior to fit the cultural family model prevalent in their country or community. This goes beyond the scope of the two-nation survey, so only secondary sources have been used to analyse this theory.

Research in Learning Technology

In Britain, the participation rate has increased significantly since the s to reach This is still lower than for men If only 25 to 54 year olds are taken into consideration, The OECD average is The flexible nature of the neo-liberal labour market in Britain and much of the Anglosphere could explain why Britain and other neo-liberal labour markets perform relatively well compared to other countries with more stringent labour market legislation. The neo-liberal policy changes that were introduced in the s, to free up the market through deregulation of the labour market, financial liberalisation and privatisation of public services have thus led to a massive increase in the number of jobs available and a fall in unemployment.

The rise in single person households led to the creation of government policies in the late s to get lone mothers into work, supported by a shift in perspective from welfare to workfare. In order to receive benefits, people are now forced to take responsibility and take on work. Workfare started in the s under the Conservative governments, but was particularly the focus of New Labour governments — It has paved the way for further stringent welfare reforms under successive governments to force people to work.

In Britain, the Equal Pay Act of , the Sex Discrimination Act of and the Employment Protection Act of were instrumental in reducing discrimination in terms of pay and opportunities for women in the workplace and thus boosting participation rates.


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Increasing numbers of women have entered higher education and want to use the skills gained. Many service jobs require general rather than specific skills which means that women and, in particular, mothers do not have to commit to long and uninterrupted careers. This question, often perceived as the cornerstone of one's pride, was posed by one of the first writers to discuss community. This is the big one for many! A plea to recognize and develop pride in a community of people with disabilities.

Carol Gill is quoted liberally throughout about how we must reconcile ourselves emotionally to disability and celebrate ourselves as people with disabilities. A look at Gallagher's role as writer, historian, and policy maker who paved the way for the Architectural Barriers Act of A discussion of the disability pride songs of Johnny Crescendo and the meaning of a culture of disability. At the Society for Disability Studies Annual Conference in , Linton and others discussed the need for a definition of disability studies for the s.

This article includes the definition that resulted from that discussion.

Longmore used the opportunity of this review to decry the writing about individuals with disabilities without understanding disability as a social and cultural condition as well as a medical one and advocated for the historical study of disability from a disability perspective. In the midst of the ongoing debate over the words "handicap" and "disabled," Peters wrote this article discussing the importance of the dialogue.

Peters, D. An admirable attempt to integrate a medical, academic, and disability perspective into new paradigms. An argument that there is a learned culture of disability. See also, "Hip Crip ," Mainstream: Magazine of the Able-Disabled, 19, 4 , Dec-Jan , , a discussion of books about disability, including several top ten reading lists. Piastro, Dianne B. Where do we go from here? Schein describes an evolution from medical failures to civil rights advocacy in concluding there are disability sub-cultures.

Stothers, William G. Many people find Stothers' editorials one of the highlights of each issue. This one reminds us that disabled people have a history and that we need to recognize and promote it. Wade, Cheryl Marie, "Crazy, etc.

Act on what you've learnt

Performance artist Wade now writes an ongoing column for the Rag depicting various aspects of the culture of disability. This one is about artists with mental health disabilities. A look at hate crimes against people because they have disabilities. Wolfe, Kathi, "Backlash!

Access to e-learning in Higher Education by Disabled Students: Current Public Policy Issues

A discussion of current anger expressed verbally and physically against individuals with disabilities and in the context of the development of a culture of disability. When Zola passed away in December , we lost one of our most prolific, creative, and enthusiastic explorers about disability and its role. This essay clearly identifies dichotomies between being perceived with and without a disability from within and without.

Newspapers, Newsletters. Contains the powerful statement, "Martin Luther King had a dream.